A large portion of the world’s population lives off fisheries resources that are being subjected to increasing pressure and decline. In this context, the link between marine protected areas (as a tool for conservation and sustainable management of these resources) and the livelihoods of coastal populations is gaining increased attention. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature recently published a technical document exploring this link, based on work sessions organised in Sydney in November 2014. Among the articles compiled in this document, an article co-written by GRET and the Wildlife Conservation Society (p. 95) describes how these two NGOs have been working together since 2013 to ensure positive impacts both for conservation and for the lives of local populations living in two new marine protected areas in the North West of Madagascar. Apart from presenting the various phases of creation and the actions implemented, the article also relates the main points of tension between conservation and development, and the main compromises made.